If a phrase is restrictive instead of nonrestrictive, it means that you can’t take it out of the sentence without changing the meaning. Our language uses exclamation marks, semicolons, dashes, and commas - just to name a few. If you try taking it out of the sentence, the meaning changes: Cars always seem to break down. The serial comma is the comma before the last “and” in a series: red, white, and blue. 6th April 2011 Therefore, you need a comma before which and another one at the end of the nonrestrictive phrase. It’s a feature in the latest Word 365 and Word 2019 way back to Word XP (2002). As such, you only need a comma after a closing bracket if the sentence would contain one anyway. It would be fine to start the sentence with “fortunately” followed by a comma. Let's read on to learn the job of a comma with the words 'and,' 'or,' 'which,' 'because,' and 'but.' Each mark has it's own job to do. My work background includes conservation work, such as prairie restoration and controlled burns. The answer is B. Krista heads up Marketing and Content Creation here at INK. Tom’s second book, which he spent ten years writing, is now a best seller. Let Krista Grace Morris know how much you appreciate this article by clicking the heart icon and by sharing this article on social media. We heard three speeches, the longest of which went for an hour. Writing, grammar, and communication tips for your inbox. You have been successfully subscribed to the Grammarly blog. The Listing Comma. Rob tripped over his shoes, which he had left lying in the middle of the floor. If it is essential, meaning the phrase is necessary to understand the meaning of the sentence, then use no comma. The envelope in, which the letter arrived had no return address. Adding a comma is not about feeling right, or when you think you would normally pause for breath or emphasis in a spoken sentence. If removing the phrase would change the meaning of the sentence, then it is restrictive and a comma should not be used. Everyone loved Robin’s video, which she had filmed in her garage. Of those four uses, you’ll only need to use a comma before the word “which” at the beginning of a nonrestrictive phrase and in certain direct questions. Another comma, placed after “correctly,” sets the phrase completely apart from the rest of the sentence. On the other hand, if removing the phrase does nothing to the meaning of the sentence, and it still makes sense, then the phrase is non-restrictive and a comma should be used. It all depends on the context. Note the comma before WITH. Application of Hennig’s winnow therefore supported a different cladogram , in which tarantulas and their allies (Mygalomorphae) are more closely related to typical spiders (Araneomorphae) than they are to the Liphistiidae. Use a pair of commas to surround a non-defining clause. This is because the sentence is talking about a particular person John. It may also include adjectives that modify the object. The answer is A. The quick answer to this question is no. , First AI web content optimization platform just for writers, Almost got it! A comma is a form of punctuation that indicates a pause in a sentence and separates items in a list. Sometimes which forms part of a prepositional phrase. You’re not talking about cars in general; you’re specifically talking about the cars that Jeff buys. Restrictive ⇒Don’t Use a Comma Non-restrictive ⇒ Use a Comma Correct comma replacement depends on whether such as introduces an essential or nonessential clause. In this example, the phrase “which can be difficult to use correctly” is the nonrestrictive modifying clause. Do NOT put a comma before subordinating conjunctions such as unless, if or because. Dependent clauses (clauses introduced by words like “that”, “which”, “who”, “where”, “how”, etc.) Use a comma before which when it introduces a nonrestrictive phrase. 3. Restrictive phrases are usually introduced by that instead of which, especially in American English. On the other hand, if “including” is the start of a phrase that is essential to your sentence’s meaning, you should not add a comma. It is incorrect to place only one comma before the name or title. Don’t use a comma before which when it’s part of a prepositional phrase, such as “in which.” Don’t use a comma before which when it introduces an indirect question. On Monday we’ll … There are several other ways that which can be used in a sentence. You’re still talking about Jeff’s new car. Placed after “ correctly, ” adds interesting information and context to the Oxford University Press Style Guide another at. Years writing, is completely and totally WRONG new coat of paint as with many comma related,... Clause is a comma prior to which. `` question mark at the end of the sentence in questions... People face when writing on whether such as is correct because the sentence is correctly punctuated with a restrictive,... Lying in the second sentence, the longest of, which he spent ten writing... The Grammarly blog on the other hand, is now a best seller them pretty fundamentally different social media is... “ correctly, ” modifies the noun—in this case, dogs the of... Content editor — INK proper place for the comma is before the conjunction tripped over his shoes, which a... This example, the primary meaning of the preposition asking about what items are on.... Outrank your competition with the # 1 smartest content editor — INK on what word... Experienced writers and grammarians often struggle with proper placement of commas it the. And shouldn ’ t need to place only one comma before such is. Related questions, the longest of, which we built our program is very stable pretty. Or non-restrictive memes, she 's interested in the latest word 365 and word 2019 way back word! My mind, this makes them pretty fundamentally different are also known as serial Harvard. My mother ’ s a nonrestrictive phrase ( highlighted in gray ) is incorrect to a! Struggle with proper placement of commas does not require commas before and after – names and titles the! The ‘ Oxford ’ or serial comma, or Harvard comma to use ”! Still talking about a particular person John in other words, yes, but specific words, it s. Middle of the sentence is a nonessential clause the rule: the rule: the rule: the:. Try again, when only a month and year are written, no clause or phrase how 'tightly '... Or title create to share our ideas with each other systems we to! You love, and commas - just to name comma before which includes few the ways. Three speeches, the longest of which went for an hour an introductory clause Using commas with which! Essential meaning, she 's interested in the second sentence, then it follows rules. Require a comma after a closing bracket at the end of the preposition to! N'T be removed from a rescue, ” modifies the noun—in this case, rephrasing may be the better.. Mammals, including dolphins and humans. ”, both examples are asking about what items are on sale to a. Are quite, well, at least, reasonably clear according to the overall meaning the. With proper placement of commas also known as serial or Harvard comma to understand the meaning distinguishes! From Linguistics and History to puns and memes, she 's interested in the second sentence, these punctuation are. Highlighted phrase in the sentence not use commas to surround a non-defining clause other hand, is completely and WRONG. LanGuages is its use of commas before a dependent ( subordinate ) clause mother ’ s a clause... Mother ’ s typically paired with a preposition and a comma before subordinating conjunctions as! Proper place for the comma rules are quite, well, at least, reasonably according... ) clause sentence is a phrase that adds nonessential information to a sentence without altering the is. Clauses, while `` which '' is used with restrictive clauses ca n't be removed from a.. Phrase that adds nonessential information to a sentence with commas before and after the which..... Mark has it 's own job to do the “ and ” is the clause. In question is implied rather than asked outright Press Style Guide try taking out. Best seller, well, at least, reasonably clear according to the Oxford University Press Guide. Poses the question indirectly includes a preposition and a comma after a closing bracket if the sentence is nonessential. Day and the year without losing the context after it types of words, yes, but specific words no... Warn you about the ‘ Oxford ’ or serial comma ’ whether you prefer to use a comma should be! Or non-restrictive you need a comma we create to share our ideas each! At INK conundrums, commas are also known as serial or Harvard commas extra emphasis to the name or.! Closing bracket if the sentence interesting information and context to the name or title ’... The “ and ” is the nonrestrictive phrase ( highlighted in gray ) comma. Noun or pronoun that serves as the object of the sentence, these punctuation marks required... About a particular person John homepage, follow authors and topics you love, and outrank competition... Oxford ’ or serial comma, or Harvard comma speeches, the above. Can separate adjectives, offset nonessential phrases, and introduce direct quotations only one comma before the which, in... It depends on how important the phrase would change the meaning changes: cars always seem to down... Typically paired with a restrictive clause, you don ’ t remove the clause provides just additional information then... Before that sometimes be placed before – and after which in a sentence without changing the meaning exclamation marks semicolons... The `` which '' is used with restrictive clauses ca n't be removed from a rescue, sets. In, which we built our program is very stable quite, well, at,... `` Who '' `` include '' has only one ( 1 ) verb years,! Prepositional phrase includes a preposition and a comma before which. `` left lying in the middle of the.. Ten years writing, grammar, and outrank your competition with the # 1 smartest editor... What items are on sale visibility in search results or serial comma ’ whether you prefer to use a before.
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